Farm Power & Machinery:

1. Why Mechanization?
Ans: The mechanization involves judicious application of inputs by using agricultural machinery/equipment e.g. hand tools, bullock drawn equipment, power driven machines including the prime movers for performing various operations required for crop production activities.  The mechanization ensures precision in operation, time reduction, labour saving and reduction of drudgery associated with various farm operations as also economize the utilization of inputs and thereby harnessing the potential of available resources.

2. If mechanization is necessary, what are the priorities?
Ans: The mechanization is necessary to enhance productivity and conservation of energy required for various operations involved in crop production, threshing, processing, transportation, value addition, storage etc.  The priorities for mechanization are to be decided as per the actual requirements of various agro climatic zones and involve land preparation equipment; crop production techniques for cereal crops, for cash crops, for oilseeds and pulses and horticultural crops etc.

3. What are the efforts made by the Government to promote mechanization?
Ans: With a view to enhance the pace of agricultural mechanization, the Government has laid emphasis to provide financial assistance to the farmers and other target groups for purchase of different kinds of farm equipment through subsidy, demonstration of new equipment among farmers for spread of new technology, human resource development in operation, maintenance/ repairs and management of agricultural machinery and the quality improvement through testing and evaluation besides institutional credit & fiscal measures.  The Farm Machinery Training & Testing Institutes  at Budni (M.P.), Hissar (Haryana), Garladinne (A.P.) and Bishwanath Chariali (Assam) established by the Government have playing a vital role in promoting agricultural mechanization.

4. Is there Agricultural Mechanization Promotion Law?
Ans: As of now, there is no Agricultural Mechanization Promotion Law in the country.

5. What are the constraints in promotion of mechanization?
The constraints in promotion of mechanization include the varied requirement of equipment for each agro climatic zone, the small and fragmented land holding, low investment capacity of the farmers, inadequate irrigation facilities, know how status of the farmers, repairs & maintenance facilities etc.

6. Whether there is labour displacement /unemployment due to mechanization?
Ans: No, the mechanization does not necessarily displace labour rather through mechanization the labour employment particularly for paid employment is enhanced by way of increase in cropped area handling of more produce, expansion of marketing infrastructure etc.

7. What are the identified newly developed equipments?
Ans: A few newly developed equipment identified are:
Zero till seed drill, strip till drill, raised bed planter, sugarcane cutter planter, rice transplanter, tractor/power tiller operated rotavator, sunflower thresher, aero blast sprayer, power weeder, cono weeder, battery operated cono weeder coconut tree climber, and fruit harvester, tractor operated spading machine etc.

8. What attachments will I need?
Ans: What implements you will need depends on what you will be doing with your tractor. When shopping for a used tractor, it is a good idea to try to find one with as many model-specific attachments as possible. These include belly mowers, loaders and backhoes, which are custom-fit to that particular make and model. They are expensive to add later and not interchangeable among different tractors, as with 3PH implements.

9. How can I operate my tractor safely on hillsides?
Ans: The simple answer is that you can't. Tractors are fundamentally top-heavy and unstable on anything but flat, even ground. Unfortunately, almost no one has flat, even ground to take care of, so a certain amount of careful hillside negotiation is usually required of any tractor operator. What you can do is learn how to operate your tractor safely when hillside use is unavoidable.

10. What can I do to help my equipment last longer?
Ans: Here are several simple maintenance tips that, when followed, will greatly increase the life expectancy of your investment. This holds true for new or used, light or heavy duty, small, medium or large equipment. While nothing will make machinery last forever, developing the habits as well as specific manufacturers' maintenance recommendations will guarantee that your tractor and related equipment will last as long as it can.

11. What is the best tractor brand?
Ans: The best tractor brand for you will depend on your location. A primary factor for older tractors is what machine sold best in your area that meets the size and HP you requires. The more machines there were of a given brand will determine the price and parts availability. For working tractors, you will find the best bargains in the major brands such as Ford, John Deere, TAFE, Mahendra &Mahindra, Eicher and Sonalika. These brands are represented in nearly all areas of the country plus have existing dealer networks for new parts.

For lesser known brands, you should discuss potential purchases with an expert as there were (as with automobiles) machines made that had quirks and extremely dangerous design flaws. If you are dependent on others for mechanic work, find out what type of tractor your chosen mechanic prefers.

12. How big a tractor should I buy?
Ans: As small as you can get by with. The smaller the rating, the less fuel consumption, emissions, and storage requirements you will have. If you are pulling large machines like balers, combines, manure spreaders or big implements like 4-gang discs or multi-bottom plow, a small tractor will not safely do the job. The two issues are having enough weight to ensure that the implement cannot upset the tractor and enough power to pull and simultaneously power the implement.

Power requirements can be estimated. For some operations such as plowing, you can use a chart to determine how many bottoms will be required at what speed to do the area you want to cover and still have time to read the paper in the evening. For heavy-weight pulling a critical factor is the braking area of the tractor or compression braking capabilities of the engine. A tractor that free wheels downhill with a load is a deadly situation as the speeds exceed the steering design and the machine becomes totally uncontrollable.

13. Are tractors dangerous?
Ans: Absolutely. The farm rates as one of the high-risk work areas and the tractor is the primary reason. The tractor flip/upset danger cannot be over stressed. The PTO risk is also extremely important. Other risks that are evident are fueling hot tractors, running the machine in a barn or enclosed area, leaving the engine running when dismounting, using the tractor on hills and using a tractor in the woods. If a tractor is used one must have an extreme respect for the dangers.

14. How can I tell if a prospective tractor is in good condition?
Ans: The following is a subset of what to look for:
Good compressionn - Your local auto parts store has the specifications in their Parts / Tune-up book and will be more than happy to sell you a compression gauge. Don't forget the spark plug wrench when you go looking.

Oil Leaks - Though a small leak (1 drip in a minute) may not seem like a big problem, splitting the tractor in half to replace a transmission shaft seal or main seal requires 12 amateur mechanic hours and a rolling hoist.

No Blue Smoke - If the tractor is putting out blue smoke it may indicate some time consuming issues. If you can, on a bright day watch the top of the pipe with a dark background (trees or a dark building). This will highlight any smoke. Some smoke may just indicate a richness condition but if the smoke is blue it is oil burning. Smoke that emits from the crankcase breather may indicate an excess of pressure in the crankcase which could mean some big repairs. Putting a excessive load will allow you to see if the machine will smoke and simultaneously listen for serious knocks. A load can be applied by putting the tractor in a high gear, applying the brakes, easing out the clutch and allowing the governor to do the rest.

Tires - "No tractor that is listed for sale has less than 50% of its tread left", the corollary is "No tractor you go to look at will have more than 20% left". Look for at least an inch on the rear, rear tires are expensive. One inch is just passable. Front tires are much cheaper and much easier to haul to the tire store.

Hydraulics - Operate the hydraulics and listen for rattling and watch for jerky movements. While this may indicate simple problems, they may be beyond the capabilities of a backyard mechanic. Another thing to look for is if the hydraulics will lift a heavy implement and if they will hold it up in their hold position.

Oil & Coolant - These are not supposed to share a common sump. Run the tractor for a long long long time, get it hot by running it under load if possible. This should open up any seams for both coolant and oil leakage. Check the oil via the dip stick and look for foaming; this may indicate minor leakage of coolant into crankcase. If the oil level comes up, the head or block is probably cracked seriously. There are tricks an unscrupulous dealer or owner can perform to sell a cracked motor such as gooping up the head gasket enough to keep a crack from showing for a long time. There should be some discrepancies in such cases with compression check levels.

Sounds - Listen for clunking in the engine both when it is idling and when it comes under load. These would indicate problems that require tear down and expensive parts. With the engine off, roll the tractor forward and backward and listen for grinding. Bearings can be extremely difficult to get in and out of the rear. If you can roll the tractor and listen as you apply the brakes, listen to the condition of the pads, sounds of grit on the pads will show up as non-smooth drum surfaces. Outright squeaking could mean that the pads are down to the rivets.

Sediment Bowl - See if rust is built up in the sediment bowl. This will ensure that the tank has rust in it. A small amount of rust means an occasional hassle in cleaning the bowl. A lot of rust will mean eventual replacement of the tank.

Air Cleaner oil cup - If this is filled with sludge or has no oil in it, it is a sign of neglect.

Cosmetics - If a tractor has been repainted, it may have the undesirable effect of causing you to think the machine is in better condition than it really is. Frequently the paint job can actually tell you a lot about the superficiality of the work performed on the machine.

Things that suggest poor workmanship are grease that has been painted over, parts that were not removed to perform the paint job, flaking paint that was not removed prior to painting, and spots that were completely missed (look underneath the machine). Don't let new paint and decals fool you, they only cost about 30 bucks.

In general you need to thoroughly examine all the metal for cracks as cracks in cast iron may be difficult to repair for those not practiced in welding. Look for patches of unrealistically smooth cast iron; these may indicate the use of an epoxy to hide cracks. Paint will hide many leaks in low pressure cases such as the transmission and final drives/rear axle housings. These will not appear for many months so there is no help there.

15. How to dust?

16. How to apply the wettable powder?
Ans: Take the recommended amount of a given insecticide & add a little water to make it into a paste.
Now, add the required quantity of water slowly, simultaneously stir the liquid to  make the spray solution

 17. How to spray the Emulsion
Ans: Calculate required quantity of chemical concentrate & water to obtain recommended strength. Add little water to the emulsion poured into a container & mix well.
Add measured quantity of water slowly, simultaneously stirring the liquid till all    the water is added. 

18. What are the precautions of handling & mixing of pesticides and herbicides?

19. Spraying :

20. What are Precautions while spraying?

21. When to spray?

22. Why testing?
Ans: The Testing of agricultural machinery is essential with a view to assess their functional performance, suitability under varying field conditions, establish, performance data as specifications for marketing and extension services and assist financial institutions/banks etc.  The information developed by way of testing of machines may be of interest to the agricultural machinery users, research institutes manufacturers etc.

23. Is the testing of agricultural machinery mandatory?
Ans: The testing of agricultural machines and implements is not mandatory.  The major equipment like tractors, power tillers, self-propelled combine harvesters, power operated equipment, irrigation, plant-protection equipment etc. are being tested by FMTTIs at Budni and Hissar on regular basis.  Whereas other equipment (manual, bullock operated and tractor/power tiller operated) is being tested at the FMTTIs at Garladinne (A.P.) and Bishwanath Charrali (Assam ).